Gellan Gum, Xanthan Gum, Carrageenan, Agar, Sodium Alginate, Locust Bean Gum and Guar Gum all belong to hydrophilic colloids because they can interact with water molecules to form sticky solutions or colloids. According to the source of raw materials, they can also be classified as microbial colloids, seaweed colloids, vegetable colloids, animal colloids and synthetic colloids.
Gellan gum and Xanthan gum belong to microbial colloids; Carrageenan, Agar, sodium alginate belong to seaweed colloids; Gelatin is an animal colloids; Locust bean gum and Guar gum are plant colloids.
Hydrophilic colloid/edible gum is widely used in soft candy, meat products, jam, jelly and other foods, different hydrocolloids has different gel characteristics, the following is their gel characteristics comparison.
Xanthan Gum solution play good stablility in different heat , salt and pH situation. The viscosity of its solution is proportional to its concentration and increases with the concentration.
Gellan Gum is a newly developed microbial hydrophilic colloid, and it has many advantages compared with other hydrophilic colloid, and its gel characteristics is as following :
*Low concentration can produce excellent gel.
*Good stability, acid resistance, high temperature resistance, heat reversibility, but also can resist the action of microorganisms and enzymes.
* Gels formed by sodium or potassium ions can be restored after addition, while gels of magnesium or calcium salts cannot be restored;
* Good compatibility with other colloid, such xanthan gum,locust bean gum,carrageenan and so on .
Agar, carrageenan and sodium alginate all belong to seaweed colloid. Agar is susceptible to temperature and acidity, and has smooth texture but not transparent. In the gel system, his dosage is high.
*The gels produced by carrageenan in the presence of potassium ions are reversible.
*It can have synergistic effect with other gels such as xanthan gum, locust bean gum and so on to enhance the product effect.
* Due to the difference between the environment and melting temperature, carrageenan gels exhibit hysteresis.
The characteristics of sodium alginate gel system are as follows: the formed gel body heat is irreversible; Slightly less transparent; Calcium salt can form a gel; Do not gel in high solids content systems.
Guar gum has good water solubility and high viscosity at low content. High temperature treatment for a long time will lead to the degradation of guar gum itself, and the viscosity will decrease.
Locust Bean Gum
Locust bean gum has good compatibility and can form elastic jelly when added carrageenan. The cracking strength of the gel can be improved significantly when combined with AGAR. Combined with seaweed gum and potassium chloride, it can be used as a compound gelling agent for canned food. It is a good ice cream stabilizer when combined with carrageenan and CMC.